Indiana CCA Conference 2019 Presentation
 

Presentations

T8

Pest Management
Tue, Dec 17, 2019
8:00am to 8:00am

T1

Pest Management
Tue, Dec 17, 2019
1:00pm to 1:00pm

 

Repeated selection by herbicides results in weed populations evolving various mechanisms that allow them to survive exposure to those herbicides. These mechanisms can be grouped into two categories: those that alter the herbicide binding site (target-site mechanisms) and those that reduce the amount of herbicide reaching the target site or allow the plant to survive despite herbicidal inhibition of the target site (collectively termed nontarget-site mechanisms). Historically, target-site resistance was most common in many of our troublesome weeds (particularly broadleaf weeds, such as waterhemp). Now, however, nontarget-site resistance is becoming more prevalent. Of the various nontarget-site mechanisms, enhanced herbicide metabolism is most common. Compared to target-site resistance, metabolic-based resistance is more complicated. In fact, our understanding of it is still in its infancy. In general, however, metabolic-based resistance is thought to evolve via increased expression in plants of one or more enzymes capable of detoxifying herbicide molecules. The challenge that this creates for weed management is that these enzymes might be able to also detoxify herbicides with other, unrelated modes of action. As an example, a weed population with metabolic resistance to an HPPD-inhibiting herbicide might also be resistant to a herbicide that has yet to be commercialized, even if it has a new mode of action. Furthermore, many of our herbicide-resistance mitigation strategies are based on target-site resistance. For example, mixing two effective herbicides with different sites of action is a great strategy to prevent target-site resistance from occurring but, in some cases, could be completely ineffective in preventing metabolic-based resistance. As metabolic herbicide resistance becomes more common, we are entering a new and more challenging era of herbicide-resistant weeds.   

Speaker

Patrick Tranel

University of Illinois
Biography

Patrick Tranel obtained a B.S. in Agronomy from Iowa State University, an M.S. in Agronomy from Washington State University, and a Ph.D. in Botany from Michigan State University. Dr. Tranel has been a faculty member in the Department of Crop Sciences at the University of Illinois since 1997. His research program uses molecular and genomics tools to address weed science issues, and has contributed much to our understanding of the evolution and underlying mechanisms of resistances to numerous herbicides in numerous weed species. Dr. Tranel also collaborates extensively with more applied weed scientists at the University of Illinois and elsewhere, fostering a research program that is timely and relevant to weed management practitioners. Dr. Tranel has received numerous awards for his research and teaching, and currently holds the Ainsworth Professorship in Crop Sciences at the University of Illinois.